Category Archives: ESL Languages

Content-Based ESL: An Introduction

By | March 3, 2021

An Introduction Language exists in two forms, the spoken and the written. Had we been treating this subject a generation ago, we would probably have put writing ahead of speaking. Two linguistic activities are associated with both speech and writing: an encoding and a decoding process. Speaking and writing themselves are the encoding processes whereby… Read More »

Testing Oral Production

By | February 28, 2021

TESTING ENGLISH AS A SECOND LANGUAGE (WHAT IS MEANT BY SPEAKING A SECOND LANGUAGE) If we compare the inventory with that which was presented in the preceding chapter on the testing of writing, one essential difference is apparent. As used in the chapter, the term writing was applied to a rather formal and sophisticated language… Read More »

Science Processes and Language

By | February 27, 2021

Science Processes Approaches to Science When science is taught from an inquiry-based, problem-solving orientation, students learn to define a science problem, state a hypothesis, gather data, analyze data, and make statements relating the hypothesis to the data. Through scientific inquiry, students develop learning processes inherent in thinking: observing, classifying, comparing, communicating, measuring, inferring, predicting, and… Read More »

Testing Reading Comprehension

By | February 25, 2021

WHAT IS MEANT BY READING COMPREHENSION When we come to the testing of reading comprehension, we are concerned with the testing of students who have passed beyond the purely audio-lingual state of language learning, in which “reading” and “writing” are used simply to reinforce the oral/aural learnings, and have proceeded to a stage in which… Read More »